Main article: 1990s uprising in Bahrain

The "1990s Uprising in Bahrain" or "1990s Intifada" was a rebellion in Bahrain between 1994 and 2000 in which leftists, liberals and Islamists joined forces. The event resulted in approximately forty deaths and ended after Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa became the Emir of Bahrain in 1999.[71] A referendum on 14–15 February 2001 massively supported the National Action Charter.[72]